CSC594 Content Theory of Emotion

Manickam

Post Traumatic Growth (PTG): A Positive Approach to Trauma Healing: Research and Designing in positive psychology using Artificial Intelligence

Introduction

“People develop new understandings of themselves, the world they live in, how to relate to other people, the kind of future they might have, and a better understanding of how to live life,” Tedeschi wrote.

When I was doing Yoga classes, my yoga guru said, How he was enlightened. It is an incredible story listen to. He was roaming in a forest with no expectations, stayed in a random place and walked again with no food or water for 12 days. When he was sitting on to of rock for a few days with closing eyes, he said that he was suddenly enlightened. He said that he did not aware that he was on the top of the rock sitting a few days. After this happened, He started seeing things differently. He appeared calm, seeing things clearly, no complex thoughts, felt younger, smiling, intelligent and optimistic. What caused this kind of enormous change? I certainly believe he went through some self Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD need not be a terrifying event. Instead, it can be a turned to be a real event; ones that change us, forge our character, and make us stronger.

Post-Traumatic Growth Definition

Post-traumatic growth (PTG) is a concept developed by psychologists Richard Tedeschi, Ph.D., and Lawrence Calhoun, Ph.D., in the mid-’90s. It refers to the positive psychological change experienced as a result of the struggle with highly challenging life circumstances and crises. It holds that people who endure psychological struggle following adversity can often see positive growth. This paper intends to set the baselines to analyze what sequences of emotions and level of intensity can be turned in to a positive PTG and which can be converted to be negative PTSD.

Basic research arguments

Is it possible to prepare people for PTG, to pave the way should tragedy or trauma strike? Yes, says Tedeschi, noting that psychologists can “allow people to understand that this may be a possibility for themselves” and is a “fairly normal process” if and when trauma occurs. Tedeschi is among the psychologists studying the Boulder Crest program’s efficacy as part of a research grant funded by the Marcus Foundation. He hopes that as vets go through the process at Boulder Crest, they “develop new principles for living that involve altruistic behavior, having a mission in life and purpose that goes beyond oneself, so that trauma is transformed into something that’s useful not only for oneself but for others.” Tedeschi is among the psychologists studying the Boulder Crest program’s efficacy as part of a research grant funded by the Marcus Foundation. He hopes that as vets go through the process at Boulder Crest, they “develop new principles for living that involve altruistic behavior, having a mission in life and purpose that goes beyond oneself, so that trauma is transformed into something that’s useful not only for oneself but for others.”

Post-traumatic Growth (PTG) Problem Statement

Tremendous growth and development have been observed after unimaginable suffering, trauma, and pain.  There are more than 300 studies have explored the phenomenon variously referred to as post-traumatic growth (PTG; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996), stress-related growth (Park, Cohen, & Murch, 1996), and benefit finding (Tennen & Affleck, 2002). However, a self-inflicting or volunteering oneself for suffering is certainly not a foolproof recipe for development, and it is possible to channel the pain from a traumatic event into positive, productive, and meaningful growth. Our intention to develop an AI-assisted design to create PTG in controlled environment for short period of time like conference, under graduate class room, training program and etc.

Proposed solution

Several technologies can be used to refine the diagnosis of PTSD in patients using imaging data, computer or smartphone questionnaires, or biometric data (sleep, HRV, skin conductance) using connected objects. Coupling MRI and ML makes it possible to distinguish a patient with PTSD from a patient without PTSD with 92.5% accuracy (Liu et al., 2015). The proposed solution based on PTSD detection and apply PTG process to improve the candidate’s life. This process has three steps. First, Understand candidates current mood state. It can be Joy, Distress, shame, pride and etc. Second, Create a trauma and measure mood state and intensity. Finally, Apply positive psychology and find mood state and intensity of the mood. Repeat the sequence of these three steps with various candidates and compare the outcome. Compare the results with no sequence applied.

Problem with Proposed solution

it can be dampened with two controversies including 1) whether PTG constructs genuine positive changes 2) The growth measurement is actually valid. The challenge with AI-assisted design, a) how to create a traumatic event for a specific person or group of people. b) how much intensity needed and c) how to measure and apply the positive psychology after the traumatic event artificially posted to the subject.

Conclusion

Summary: PTG helps candidates finding strength and abilities, improving good relationships, and a positive change in priorities and philosophies.

Conclusion:

  1. PTG leads to positive life changes and this improves wellbeing,
  2. PTG does lead to life changes but this is stressful and so leads to lowered wellbeing, and
  3. PTG is a coping strategy and its effectiveness as a coping strategy mediates the relationship between PTG and wellbeing. Research is inconclusive as to which hypothesis is accurate and so further work is required.

References

Liu, F., Xie, B., Wang, Y., Guo, W., Fouche, J.-P., Long, Z., … Chen, H. (2015, March). Characterization of post-traumatic stress disorder using resting-state fMRI with a multi-level parametric classification approach. Brain Topography, 28(2), 221–237.

Bourla, A., Mouchabac, S., El Hage, W., & Ferreri, F. (2018). e-PTSD: an overview of how new technologies can improve the prediction and assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 9(sup1), 1424448. https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2018.1424448

AI Design

Engineering a PTG or treating PTSD can be done in three steps

  • Analyze current sentiment by using text or speech analysis
  • Identify candidate or groups sentiment whether positive or Negative.
  • In case positive sentiment, Induce traumatic situation. For example, fail entire class or extra boot camp exercise in the for an unknown reason.
  • Once the group or candidate reaches lowest sentiment point, bring the positive direction with extra

PTG Concept

Sentiment Analyzer

Sentiment analysis is still an open problem. Despite the topic being a more exciting term compared with other conditions like a document for a human being, it is not a proper object for sentiment analysis for a computer program. The content of a topic usually is sparse and “hidden” within documents, so some approximation should be introduced to identify the contents of a topic. ( Frazier, P. and et al, 2018)

Sentiment Analysis tool

In this AI PTG project is a crucial part to analyze, the current sentiment of the candidate or group. Sentiment Analyzer is will provide a current mood or sentiment.

Clearly Positive

Clearly Negative

SentimentScoreMagnitude
Clearly Positive5090
Clearly Negative20250
Neutral5550
Mixed50250

Presentation

Code Demo

Further development

  1. Add Voice – Add voice recognition over text entry. The voice can be converted to text. The text sentiment Analyzer module can be reused.
  2. Add Line chart – Keep the history of the rating and create a line chart so we may have the tracking and see how mood swings.
  3. Add Multiple users and create a combination of user mood line chart. The combined mood can set the ground PTG in a class like an environment.
  4. Create Traumatic environment
  5. Create Positive envionronment
  6. Analyze and Report

Defined terms within this content theory

  1. PTSD – Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that’s triggered by a terrifying event — either experiencing it or witnessing it. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event.
  2. PTG – Post-traumatic Growth. It refers to the positive psychological change experienced as a result of the struggle with highly challenging life circumstances and crises. It holds that people who endure psychological struggle following adversity can often see positive growth.
  3. Agent: Software Agent maintains internal state across invocations. It maintains persistent relationships with other agents and It is capable of autonomous decision making.
  4. Emotionally Intelligent Agent: Emotionally Intelligent Agent: “having” human-like emotions at a rudimentary level. “understanding” that other agents have emotions. perceiving the emotions of
    others and manifesting the emotions that it has
  5. Daemon: A daemon is a program that runs continuously and exists for the purpose of handling periodic service requests that a computer system expects to receive. The daemon program forwards the requests to other programs (or processes) as appropriate.

Objects in the domain

  1. Simulation Events (sim-events)—Time-stamped text, audio, and video will be sent from one Candidate agent (client) to the host agent.
  2. Journaling – The sim-event responses will be recorded with more essential details.
  3. Classification – Classification engine will analyze and give the emotional level of the candidate. At this point, the System will provide the number from -10 to 10. The negative indicates negative emotion, and the positive number represents an emotion.
  4. Application – Application will define the agenda of the process. If the candidate is already in the positive side of the spectrum, adjust the program to start with traumatic news or incidents, vice versa.
  5. Analytics – Analytics is a sophisticated report which will be used to track results and adjust the program.

Blue-sky applications

1. Bot that make your day.

The Bot will ask you questions. Understands your state mood. It will be a companion to decompress you and make you happy!

AI based system is analyze you based on your social media, which political orientation, what makes you happy, what makes you sad, and etc. The AI system can design your day, reschedule your calendar , make online meeting to in-person meeting, reshuffle your playlist , display only the news that you’d like or hate. Picks call or send it to so real interactive voice bot. Basically, you give control to a your digital version of you, an AI machine, because you don’t know how to manage you. This is possible because most of our day is already governed by computers.

2. Story teller

Talk to the Bot and it will tell a story with different theme and ending. The sequence introduction of characters, create a challenge, failure, depression, and , ending good wins over bad. or, Shakespeare style stories. no one survives. My wife tells everyday some made up stories to my toddlers. everyday new story which makes no sense for questioning mind but toddlers enjoy it.

3. Design Effective Conferences

Many conferences are boring and same kind of powerpoint presentations. PTG for conferences would be good idea. Starting with a depressing , troubling scenes. For example, software development conference, talk about out sourcing , how successful offshore development is and how many jobs will go out side USA. In a defense conference, show case all china, Russian advanced machines. Middle of the day, make the conference mood to neutral and last session show case happy, confident and encouraging news and shows. This idea is not making AI machine but practicing PTG for a day or two.

4. Design effective Classes

This application is based on the paper . “Does Self-Reported Post-traumatic Growth Reflect Genuine Positive Change?

In this study, Patricia and team assessed the validity of self-reported PTG examining the relation between perceived growth and actual growth from pre-to post-trauma with undergraduate students from multiple universities. Results were similar to those of studies that have compared perceived and actual change personality, relationships, and health in that perceived post-traumatic growth as measured by the PTGI not appear to measure actual growth from pre- to post-trauma. PTGI scores were unrelated to most measures of actual growth PTG-related domains (positive relationships, meaning in life satisfaction, and gratitude), even though those measures appear to tap the same domains.

Designing an effective class is a method which needs to be further explored with big data analysis and gives a perfect scoring class.

Indexed blue-sky ideas files

Running Client Server Program

Simple Client Server Program

The server hosted in www.rsadatasolutions.com; the same server as this page hosted.

Port has been opened in my Amazon Linux server

Port: 9090

Java Server program runs in the background with this command.

nohub java simpleServer >> simpleServer.log &

the output will be saved in simpleServer.log for my reference

tail -f simpleServer.log

Download client here and run the java program.

Extract zip and save sasiClient.class on your system. open command prompt and go to the directory where you have extracted the the class file

java sasiClient

Running Simple Client Server code

Best computable emotion and personality papers

Bourla, A., Mouchabac, S., El Hage, W., & Ferreri, F. (2018). e-PTSD: an overview of how new technologies can improve the prediction and assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 9(sup1), 1424448. https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2018.1424448

Schuller, B., & Pei, J. (2016). Using Computer Intelligence for Depression Diagnosis and Crowdsourcing. Computer, 49(7), 8–9. https://doi.org/10.1109/MC.2016.206

Rizzo, A. ‘Skip,’ & Shilling, R. (2017). Clinical Virtual Reality tools to advance the prevention, assessment, and treatment of PTSD. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8(sup5), 1414560. https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2017.1414560

Scherer, S. (2016). Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression and PTSD Are Associated with Reduced Vowel Space in Screening Interviews. IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, 7(1), 59–73. https://doi.org/10.1109/TAFFC.2015.2440264

Nejati, V., Salehinejad, M. A., & Sabayee, A. (2018). Impaired working memory updating affects memory for emotional and non-emotional materials the same way: evidence from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cognitive Processing, 19(1), 53–62. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10339-017-0837-2

Galatzer-Levy, I. R., Karstoft, K.-I., Statnikov, A., & Shalev, A. Y. (2014). Quantitative forecasting of PTSD from early trauma responses: A Machine Learning application. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 59, 68–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.08.017

Liu, F., Xie, B., Wang, Y., Guo, W., Fouche, J.-P., Long, Z., … Chen, H. (2015, March). Characterization of post-traumatic stress disorder using resting-state fMRI with a multi-level parametric classification approach. Brain Topography, 28(2), 221–237.

Bibliography

Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (1996). The posttraumatic growth inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9(3), 455–471. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490090305

Park, C. L., Cohen, L. H., & Murch, R. L. (1996). Assessment and Prediction of Stress-Related Growth. Journal of Personality, 64(1), 71–105. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1996.tb00815.x

VICARIOUS POSTrRAUMATIC GROWTH IN PSYCHOTHERAPY. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://sites.uncc.edu/ptgi/wp-content/uploads/sites/9/2013/01/Vicarious-PTG.pdf

Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (2004). Posttraumatic Growth: Conceptual Foundations and Empirical Evidence. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Inc. Psychological Inquiry (Vol. 15). Retrieved from https://sites.uncc.edu/ptgi/wp-content/uploads/sites/9/2013/01/PTG-Conceptual-Foundtns.pdf

Frazier, P., Tennen, H., Gavian, M., Park, C., Tashiro, T., Frazier, P., … Tashir, T. (2018). Posttraumatic Growth Reflect Does Self-Reported Genuine Positive Change ? Psychological Science, 20(7), 912–919. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.depaul.edu/stable/40575117

Implementation Notes

Implementation notes can be found here

Suggested readings with annotations

1. A virtual reality exposure therapy application for Iraq war post-traumatic stress disorder

Pair, J., Allen, B., Dautricourt, M., Treskunov, A., Liewer, M., Graap, K., . . . Institute for Creative Technologies, University of Southern California, Marina del Rey. (2006). A virtual reality exposure therapy application for Iraq war post-traumatic stress disorder. Fort Belvoir, VA: Defense Technical Information Center. (2006). Retrieved May 9, 2019, from INSERT-MISSING-DATABASE-NAME.

2. Emotion in Games: Theory and Praxis by Kostas Karpouzis, Georgios N Yannakakis

Karpouzis, K., & Yannakakis, G. (Eds.). (2016). Emotion in games: Theory and praxis (Socio-affective computing, 4). Cham: Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-41316-7

Run this command from your system’s command line

Planning documents for this project

  1. Theory final version
  2. Software Deployment and installation guide
  3. Proof of concept test result

Shared documents

Growth Trauma –American Psychological Association 

Is it possible to prepare people for PTG, to pave the way should tragedy or trauma strike? Yes, says Tedeschi, noting that psychologists can “allow people to understand that this may be a possibility for themselves” and is a “fairly normal process” if and when trauma occurs.

Write a Comment

Comment